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Consciousness-An Introduction Blackmore, Susan? What does consciousness do? How to build a conscious machine Section Six The brain The neural correlates of consciousness The unity of consciousness Damaged brains Section Seven Borderlands Unconscious processing The paranormal Reality and imagination Section Eight Altered states of consciousness Drugs and altered states Sleep, dreams and hypnotic states Exceptional human experience Section Nine First-person approaches The view from within Meditation and mindfulness Buddhism and consciousness References bibliography Index.
Annesi, Tony Bibliography. Kevin, D. What is batto-do? What is tameshigiri? Alexis Artwohl References and suggested readings bibliography. Jespersen; George W. Maoshing Resources bibliography. Hui Tyson References bibliography. Enter into Aikido Nemeroff, David Contents Foreword Introduction Section I Starting your journey Brief history of aikido Starting your search Lineage and legitimacy in the martial arts Taditioal martial arts in a modern world What to expect as a beginner Children in aikido The role of the aikido student Dojo etiquette Ukemi: The art of falling Weapons and the martial arts The evolution of a student Section II Training the mind The myth and mystery of ki What is a sensei?
Bailey Hopking, Alan Bibliography. Visualization meditations Dynamic meditations Chapter 9 Dealing with injuries Consolation ideas Homeopathy for injuries Other approaches to treating injuries and pain Chapter 10 Are you living your t'ai chi? Chapter 11 Musings, humor, and other stories Musings on t'ai chi Humor in t'ai chi Glossary References bibliography Index About the author. Concise bibliography on feng-shui. Chapter 2 From tribal rule to civil monarchy Sixth-century Japan The emergence of a centralized monarchy The growth of the aristocracy The estate system Chapter 3 From civil monarchy to warrior rule The local warrior The political emergence of the warrior chieftains The establishment of the Kamakura Bakufu The consolidation of the Bakufu Chapter 4 From warrior rule to feudal anarchy The decline of the Bakufu authority The decline of the estate system The rise of the provincial constable The daimyo at war The daimyo at peace Chapter 5 From feudal anarchy to national unity Reunificaton The Edo Bakufu The growth of the bureaucracy The freezing of society The abolition of feudal forms Bibliography Choronology Glossary Index.
Rice Select bibliography. A meeting with Tolly Burkan3 Symbolism of light and fire in ancient and modern spiritual teachingsII Throughout anicent and modern history1 In the mist of the past: Historicla evidence2 "I saw it with my own eyes": Eyewitnes testimonies3 Is seeing believing? From oservations to controlled studies4 Factors and rituals involved in the preparation for firewalking-Then and now5 Firewalking workshops6 Fire-immunity and other reported extraordinary abiities7 Psychological effects of firewalkingIII What does science say?
Existing hypotheses1 How is firewaking possible? Discussion1 Our assumptions2 Intuitive groupings: Experience and impact3 The spiritual dimension4 Our study and future research5 A composite firewalkerConclusionsNotes and references Bibliography Index. Warner Bibliography. Fundamental Karate Dallas, Kim Further reading bibliography. Gem Elixirs and Vibrational Healing, Vol. I Gurudas Bibliography. II Gurudas Bibliography. Ways to learn more about self-defense Self-defense programs in the United States and Canada Selected annotated bibliography.
What will you learn? Can you use deadly weapons? Can you afford armor? Do you have the right attitude? Will you be loyal? Could you survive on campaign? Will you live in a castle? Will you be part of a siege? Would you visit a town? Do you want the top job? What does the future hold? Your interview Glossary Index Further reading bibliography Have you got the job?. Nau Annotated bibliography. Huna: Ancient Miracle Healing Practices and the Future of Medicine Allen Lawrence; Lisa Lawrence Mana-loa Breath and healing Energy and healing Getting what we want from our life Blocking our desires The three AKA bodies Using positive energy for healing How does an illusion lead to illness Chapter Two: Creating wellness through huna Healing through huna prayer Do everything you can The value of huna prayer in healing Seeds of thought Creating a huna prayer Huna prayer without a ceremony or ritual Creating a ritual as part of your huna prayer Secrets important to the performance of a huna prayer Completion of the huna prayer Chapter Three: The use of rituals, sacrifices and objects in healing Rituals Sacrifices The role of objects The rituals of the physician The examination ritual Medicine and the role of huna and rituals Sacred energy The magic fountain Why rituals fail Chapter Four: Creating a healthy future Bibliography.
The seeming downside of new information The power of a smile Surface tension Box of chocolates,, or slice of pie T'ai chi s a healing art T'ai chi and old bones Bounce back force Inteligent t'ai chi The yin and yang of t'ai chi, and t'ai chi students Natural reflections Appendix A Ten classical principles of t'ai chi ch'uan Appendix B Additonal principles Appendix C Recommended reading bibliography References Glossary of terms About the author Index. Dye Both hands grasp hitting elbow breath throw 2 Dojo terminology Bibliography. Bibliography 3. Japanese Sword Fittings from the Alexander G. Mosle Collection Izzard, Sebastian Bibliography.
Judo-The beginnings Equipment In the dojo Warming up Breakfalls Throwing Foot-and-leg throws Groundwork Sacrifice throws and combinations Derense becomes attack Grading A world sport Japanese words and glossary More books to read and taking it further bibliography Index. Judo for the Gentle Woman R. Gardner Eighth throw Tomoenage Glossary Bibliography. Judo for the West G. Judo Groundplay to Win Barnett, P. Ju-Jitsu Martin Dixon Further reading bibliography. Kahuna Magic Brad Steiger ContentsForewordIntroduction1 Hawaiian words used in huna magic 2 How huna may be a workable system of magic for everyone 3 How the kahunas used the great ha prayer rite 4 How the three souls of man direct the force of huna 5 How the kahunas practiced telepathy and mind reading 6 Astral projection in the huna system 7 How to deal with the vital force of the kahuna death prayer 8 How the kahunas foresaw the future 9 How huna regarded the question of sin 10 The kahuna method of instant healing 11 The life-giving secrets of lomilomi 12 The horrid things of darkness 13 How the kahunas treated insanity 14 Max Freedom Long reveals huna's secret within a secret 15 Publications devoted to huna research bibliography Appendix I-The ten basic elements in kahuna magic Appendix II.
McBride Contents, Who were the kahuna? Karate's History and Traditions Bruce A. Haines Bibliography. Leland Selected references and resources bibliography. Who was Ed Parker? The father of American karate His firsts As a family man His contributions to other's stardom His skill and genius The family tree The catches The mucky-mucks Is there any tenth degree? Set a goal Select a school You've got to want to do it How to be a student Physical limitations and previous experience Class structure and student responsibility How people learn Bowing in and warming up Drills and equipment Board breadking Facets of the art Teaching methods How to practice Solo practice The times rule Partner practice Kenpo dynamics Burnout The kenpo self defense techniques What the techniques do The color code of combat What's with all the names?
The codes What's with all the numbers? Chapter 3: What is Aikido? Chapter 4: What do Kabbalah and Aikido have in common? Knife Collector's Encyclopedia Parker, Jim Contents Preface and explanation of prices How do I collect knives History of knife collecting Grading the condition of knives Where to buy knives Recommended reading on knives bibliography What knives should I collect Knife collecting etiquette Storing your pocket knives What if I decided to sell my collection Where did all the factories go H. Hufford Double cuts using a half-mat shodan Checklist for safe cutting Rolling tatami mats for practice cutting Soaking the rolled tatami prior to cutting Building a stand for cutting single mats Examples of tameshigiri Section Three Kodachi-Iai etcetera Nihon Taikiku Daigaku Kodachi-Iai Final remarks About the authors Further readings bibliography and sources.
Kukai-Major Works Kukai Selected bibliography. Hidden dragons and 'deadly China dolls'6 Last hero in China? Kung Fu Elements Shou-Yu Liang; Wen-Ching Wu Basic sanshou strategies Fist, hand, and elbow applications Kicking applications Sanshou fighting combinations Chapter 4 Practical takedown applications Use leverage to your advantage Fast takedown techniques Chapter 5 Practical joint control applications Neutralization drills Qinna techniques Chapter 6 Wushu kung fu attainment training Iron arm training Iron leg training Iron sand palm training Red sand palm training Cavity press finger training Sound, eyes, and ear training Emitting neijin-internal strength releasing training Light body and agility training Chapter 7 Cavity press The cavity press concept Numbing points Knockout points Common striking points used in fighting Examples of vital pioints used in different styles Appendix A Glossary Appendix B Herbal formulas About the author Shou-Yu liang About the author Wen-Ching Wu Bibliography Index.
Haha Sources and suggested reading bibliography. Rating system used throughout this bibliographic study bibliography. Intuitive knowledge Practical wisdom Stages of development in the martial arts Tao Chapter 10 The simplicity of the martial arts The concept of simplicity Simplicity and the martial arts The worth of a single martial arts A do without forms Practical applications Chapter 11 Mastery of a martial art The levels of martial art The master Becoming a master of a martial art Particular activity and general insight Justification of a way of life Chapter 12 The future of the Eastern martial arts Current trends in the martial arts The individuation of the martial arts Eclecticism and the unity of a martial art From jutsu to do sport Drawbacks of martial art sport What should the martial arts become?
The way of the martial artist and progress in the martial art Appendix Bibliography. Massage Techniques Lawrence, D. Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan Fu Zhongwen; Louis Swaim Contents Translator's introduction Mastering yang style taijiquan Fu Zhongwen's preface Gu Liuxin's "An introductin to yang style taijiquan" Chapter one Taijiquan essentials Yang Chengfu's "A discussion of taijiquan practice" Yang Chengfu's "The ten essentials of taijiquan theory" Chapter Two Yang style taijiquan illustrated The names andorder of yang styel taijiquan postures A few points of explanation regarding the illustrations Yang style taijiquan illustrated form instructions and important points Chapter Three Yang style taijiquan push hands Fixed-step push hands ding bu tuishou Active-step push hands huo bu tuishou Dalu Appendix Taijiquan classics Translator's notes to the classics "The taijiquan treatise" "Song of the thirteen postures" "The mental elucidatin of the thirteen postures" "The taijiquan classic" "The song of push hands" Glossary Bibliography.
Rory Bibliography. Memories of Ed Parker-Sr. Recommended books bibliography. Hudson Selected bibliography. Pert Recommended reading bibliography. Natural Bodybuilding for Men and Women Neff, Peter Contents Introduction Natural bodybuilding Drugs in bodybuilding Prerequisites for training naturally Fundamentals of natural bodybuilding Pectoral exercises Deltoid exercises Latissimus dorsi exercises Trapezius exercises Bicep exercises Forearm exercises Tricep exercises Quadricep exercises Hamstring exercises Calf exercises Abdominal and intercostal exercises Miscellaneous exercises Women's natural bodybuilding Essentials to the natural bodybuilding life style Natural bodybuilding nutrition Staying natural: My story Notes Bibliography.
List of fictional martial arts
By Yang, Jwing-Ming, Ph. Jamaica Plain, Mass. First Edition Second Edition Yang has translated and commented on scores of Taijiquan and Qigong treatises and his contributions are outstanding. Translated by Barbara Davis. Commentary by Chen, Wei-ming. San Francisco, North Atlantic Books, A first rate contribution in both translation and commentary. Liao T'ai Chi Classics. First Edition, Second Edition, The Treatise by Master Chang San-feng ca. It draws heavily from Taoist alchemical symbolism and other writings by Taoists like Master Zhang.
Nobody really knows whether or not one of the numerous persons called "Master Zhang San Feng" actually wrote these short treatises or commentaries attributed to him. They may have been documents compiled, redacted, edited, or composed by persons associated with a Taoist school where Master Zhang San Feng is respected or revered. They may have been compiled or written hundreds of years after Master Zhang San Feng died or disappeared. This is also true for writings attributed to Lao Tzu.
The official Taoist cannon consists of thousands of documents composed over many centuries since BCE. The documents are part of the extensive Taoist written tradition, and the exact author of a particular document is sometimes uncertain. I don't think Mr. Cleary attributed so many texts to Chang Sanfeng. Many commentaries exist for this Treatise on Tai Chi. Nebulous as one energy. No separation. Thus, Limitless Void is the mother of Grand Ultimate.
Thus the origin of myriad of things. Two energies separate. Heaven and earth judge. Grand Ultimate results. Two energies are yin and yang. Yin quiescent and yang dynamic. Yin terminates yang generates.
- A Collection of Hearts.
- Aikido Shobukan Dojo?
- The Principals Hot Seat: Observing Real-Life Dilemmas.
Heaven and earth are separated into pure and impure. Pure floats impure sinks. Pure high impure low. Yin and yang combine, pure and impure unite. Interact and generate, result in myriad things. Life of man originally possesses Limitless Void. This is the prenatal mechanics. Creation of man is post-natal, thus Grand Ultimate. Thus myriad things not without Limitless Void. Also not without Grand Ultimate. The function of man. When there is movement, there must be quiescence. Extreme quiescence there must be movement. Movement and quiescence mutually operate, that is yin-yang.
United become one Grand Ultimate. Life of man is all dependent on spirit and energy. Pure energy rises up. Doubtless to heaven. Focus spirit internally. Doubtless to earth. Spirit and energy unit. Result in one Grand Ultimate. Hence, the transmission of my Art of Grand Ultimate. First, understand the marvelous way of the Grand Ultimate. Not understand this, not my students. Art of Grand Ultimate, movement is like quiescence. Quiescence is like movement. Movement and quiescence interact. Mutually connected without break.
Two energies unite.
1 -The Roots of the Tree
Signals the attainment of the Grand Ultimate. Internally focus spirit. Externally accumulate energy. Before form arrives, intention first arrives. Form has not arrived, intention has already arrived. What is intention? The agent of spirit. Spirit and energy unite, the seat of Grand Ultimate is decided. Its sign is settled. Its seat is settled. Continuously interact.
The number seventy two. Thirteen techniques in Art of Grand Ultimate. Ward off, roll back, press in, in contact, take, spread, elbow, anchor. Forward, backward, to the left, to the right, remain at center. According to creation and reaction of Eight Symbols and Five Processes. Also empty spirit, ignore pull, loosen waist, settle false-real, sink and press, use intention and not use strength. Top and bottom coordinated, internal and external united.
Continuously linked without break. Quiescence found in movement. The ten essentials in Art of Grand Ultimate. No-two-gate for those who learn the art. Fundamental for entering the way. Entering the way nourish heart stabilize nature; accumulate energy focus spirit be main path. Practice this art must follow thus. Heart not peaceful, nature disturbed. Energy not accumulated, spirit disordered. Heart and nature not united, spirit and energy not coordinated, four limbs and hundred meridians of body lifeless, and functions useless.
To pacify heart and stabilize nature, focus spirit and accumulate energy. Not miss hit-sitting. Not neglect techniques of training. Search within movement and quiescence the benefits of Grand Ultimate. From Eight Symbols and Five Processes find principles of creation and reaction. Use seventy two number to achieve heart and nature, spirit and energy of the Grand Ultimate. Mutually function. Thus heart peaceful nature stabilized, spirit focused energy accumulated. Achieve attainment of Grand Ultimate in body. Yin-yang unite, movement and quiescence become one. Four limbs and hundred meridians of body flow smoothly.
Without stagnation without wastage. Hence receive my transmission. Those pursuing the Dao, need to know the three stages and three gates. Section 1.
The Secrets Behind Martial Arts ! | The spiritual secrets behind martial arts, tai-chi and yoga !
In Internal Alchemy there are also three stages, accumulating the essence and chi is the first stage, opening and closing passages is the second stage, building the foundation and refine the self is the third stage. Begin with the first stage, is basically to purify the mind and to abstain from desire, first close the external three treasures ear, eye, mouth , and nurture the internal three treasures essence, chi, spirit.
Section 2. What is exploring the truth?
- The Works: Mrs. A. D. T. Whitney.
Read the authentic teachings, explore the authentic pathways, observe the transformation of the universe, explore the Horse Diagram and the Turtle Diagram, retain the chi during leisure times, keep the spirit from scattering to build the foundation. Explore the truth together with the source of life, and you will get the unbeatable body, and to pursue the medicine to last forever. The source of life means internal, life means external, connect the internal to the external as one, and arrive at the great Dao.
Section 3. When the spirit is condensed, it is like sitting on top of a tall mountain and looking at the mountains and waters, like putting up a sky lamp lighting up every darkness and obscurity, this is the meaning of condensing the spirit on emptiness. Regulating the breath is not difficult, when the mind-spirit is quiet, following the breath naturally, I only abide in the naturalness, this when combined with spirit lighting downward, is what means by regulating the breath. Condensing the mind under the naval is called condensing the spirit, returning the chi under the naval is called regulating the breath.
Not forgetting and not assisting use silence and softness, breath is active and mind at ease. See nothingness as the place to keep the mind, see dim silence as home for breath and spirit, again and again, purify and purify, all of a sudden spirit and breathe both forgotten, spirit and energy fused.
The Yang suddenly arise like one is drunk. True appearing and disappearing, happens when the mystical gate is realized. Section 4. Dao is difficult to learn, and so is teaching the Dao. The teacher is diligent, are the student lazy? The teacher can bear the trouble, can the student endure? Learn not thoroughly, practice not diligently, and mind is not pure, spirit is not real, if approach the Dao with these, not one in ten-thousand succeed.
To know the mechanism, one can never succeed via the mind, intent, and thought. This is mystical! Spirit need to be the real spirit, to be called innate. Real spirit is, real thought, real mind, real intent. How to differentiate? Real spirit never arise from refining the spirit, student should know this. Section 5. Kungfu should be proceed in two levels. During meditation, the most important is to condense the spirit and regulate the breath, use calmness to bring back order, refrain from assisting and forgetting, none will not gain kungfu by day.
Condensing the spirit and regulating the breath, only need flat mind and harmonized energy. When mind is flatten spirit is condensed, when energy is harmonized breath is regulated. When the mind is in it, there is no wave. To sum up one need to empty the human mind, embrace the Dao mind, return this Dao mind back to emptiness, dark and silence, save in the center, and one can nurture the real breath, obtain the non-spirit spirit.
Sections translated, Chinese characters and English translation. Conquer the mind, do nondoing. In activity and quietude, know the source progenitor. There is no thing; whom else do you seek? Real constancy should respond to people; In responding to people, it is essential not to get confused. When you don't get confused, your nature is naturally stable; When your nature is stable, energy naturally returns. When energy returns, Elixir spontaneously crystallizes, In the pot pairing water and fire.
The whole of these twenty verses is a ladder straight to heaven. Wretched life, a sea of sufferings, Drifting here and there is not free. No shore nor end, no berth to park, All day sail around sharks and fishes. If you repent, there is the shore, Not till the wind and waves break your vessel. Rootless tree, the flower is withering, Renew old tree and graft green branch.
Plum on willow, mulberry with pear, Pass to devotees as an example. Ancient method of transplanting immortals, There is really a cure to aging. Seek a Master, ask for the recipe, Proceed to practice before it's too late. Rootless tree, the flower is deviated, Part from Yin Yang Tao not full. Metal from wood, mercury from lead, Yin Yang each at one side, like orphan and widow.
Yin Yang on earth is like man and his mate, Sons and grandsons, successive generations. Comply and be earthen, regress to be immortal , Only in between top down top. Rootless tree, flower is numerous, Sweet and charming surpass cosmetics. Beware the restless mind, and the heart full of whims, Wear an iron face like your mother. Draw the real sword of the azure dragon, And pluck the fresh flowers off the walls. Avail of the wind, and pull a full sail , Through the treasure mountain how empty-handed? Rootless tree, the flower is blooming, Pick the flower from the crescent moon pot.
Prolong life, cure ailment and mishap, So as to equip theurgic treasures for your friends. From this can accomplish heavenly treasure, Never mind the refuters mock me a fool. Advice to the talented, don't show off your wit, Not meet a Master, don't try hard to guess. Rootless tree, the flower is charming, On earth react to tides but to stars from the sky.
Dragon slaying sword, and tiger tying rope, Revolve the ladle handle of the pole star. Smelt a pot of real sun and moon, Sweep away all other three thousand heresies. Walk on top of the sky, how carefree, Sins and mortal filths wipe out in one stroke. Rootless tree, the flower in pair, Dragon tiger appear and fight on the scene. Lead casted into mercury, Yin concoct with Yang , Theurgical form of millet pearl is worth priceless.
This is the real seed of homestead, Turn old man to boy and long live. Ascend to heaven, way to pure bliss, Refrain from rebirth not to meet king of hell. Rootless tree, the flower is rare, Grow it in the moon for a moment. Cloud grabbing hands, walk on ladders of clouds, Fetch the pre-heavenly first flower. Drink wine enjoy flower feeling so well, So much fun to immortal elders with me dead-drunk.
Entrust to the heart, carefully safeguard, For fear that fire surge up and down in the pot. Rootless tree, the flower is red, Pick all the red flowers now empty tree. Form is empty, emptiness is the form, Thoroughly discern that emptiness is in forms. Know clearly emptiness then forms will perish, but theurgical form long last not come to naught. Continuously and gently regulate your breathing; One yin and one yang brewing in the internal cauldron. Nature must be enlightened, life be preserved. Don't rush, let the fire burn slowly.
Close your eyes and look at your heart of life. Let tranquility and spontaneity be the source. The beauty is boundless and inexplicable, All over the body vital energy arises. Who can know such a marvelous experience? It's like a dumb person having a beautiful dream. Swiftly take in the primordial essence; The elixir breaks through the three obstacles, Rising from dantian to the top at niyuan , Then submerging into the zongyuan.
Water and fire combine for form real mercury, Without wu and ji there is no elixir. Let the mind be still, and life be strong. The spirit radiates throughout 3, worlds. Golden cockerel crows beneath the shadowless tree, The red lotus blossoms in the middle of night. Winter comes the sun shines again, A thunderous roar shatters heaven and earth.
Dragons call, tigers play, Heavenly music fills the sky with harmony. In nebulous mixture everything is empty, The infinite phenomena are all here. Marvelous in its mystery, mysterious in its marvel. The circulation of the stream breaks through the three obstacles; All phenomena are born in the union of heaven and earth. Drink the dew of nature, sweet like honey, Saints are buddhas, buddhas are saints. When the ultimate reality reveals dualism disappears, Now I realize all religions are the same! Eat when hungry, sleep when tired, Offer a joss stick and practice meditation.
The great Tao is just before your eyes, If you are deluded, you'll miss the chance. Once you've lost your human form you may have to wait a million eons. The uninformed dream of going to heaven, The blind go into a deep forest to practice. The ultimate secret is marvelous beyond the profane, Letting out the ultimate secret is heavy sin.
The four true principles you have to cultivate, Breaking the gate of mystery to reach the marvelous. Cultivate day and nigh without break, Get a master early to develop your elixir. There are people who know that real mercury Is the elixir of longevity and immortality. Cultivate each day, be more determined each day; Do not regard spiritual cultivation as just an ad hoc task.
To succeed one must cultivate for three years, nine years, Before a pearl of elixir can be cultivated. Translated by Wong Kiew Kit, Master Jou, Tzung Hwa Renowned for his fitness and intelligence. Shasta was silent. His long beard was black as emptiness, ear lobes to his shoulders, holding obsidian in his hand, pointing to the sun, eyes staring into infinity, his long body clothed in silence. We exchanged "hellos" smiled and bowed, a barbarian and an Immortal, both panting from the climb, laughing, ten-thousand echoes between our rocky minds.
After billions upon billions of heartbeats past for he must have been years old , I was so bold as to ask the ancient one for the sacred mantra of yore. We said not a word - hands moving like clouds, fingers grasping sparrow's tails, faces smiling, feeling the sun drop, glimpsing a half moon climbing the clear sky. Time flowed without a ripple of memories, Space embraced a crane cooling its wings, Being began to sing softly in tune with the moon. My dusty black dog barked, sensing something on the warm wind; speaking her mind, ears up.
Master Chang was gone. Leaving one shoe on a beanpole, and a page of poems - mementos for mortals. Two black butterflies danced wing to wing in love. Dragons and Tigers are still dreaming - Ready for Rebirth. I breathe in, the World Breathes Out. The Gate of Space opens; Heaven moves and Yang is born.
The hands move out, embracing the One. The mind settles and is clear. Yin appears like the moon at dusk. I breathe out, the World Breathes In. The Doors of Emptiness close; Earth quiets and Yin is born. The hands move in, entering the One. The body settles and becomes whole. Yang appears like the sun at dawn. Awakened, Peaceful, Free. From the edge, the cosmic circle opened, Chang San-Feng slipped inside, smiling, he stroked his long black beard and spoke softly, "Ah, another old man standing so still in San Ti Shi.
Continue, my friend, stand in peace, touch the mind. Xuan Wu guards the Gate, the Turtle chants, the Snake rises, and The subtle winds of understanding blow down the centuries. When still, soar like the Black Dragon; when moving, walk like the Mountain. Daoist Five Element wuxing cosmology is based in a theory of correspondences very similar to theories developed in the Greco-Roman world and subsequently passed onto Medieval Europe. The many diagrams of the various Daoist correlative systems, distinctive within the various Daoist schools, resemble in many ways the correlative symbolism of European Renaissance esotericism in synthesizing the elements in Daoism five: in the four directions, water N , wood E , fire S , metal W , and earth in the center , with seasonal, astrological, herbal, mineral, animal as well as with colors, human organs, and spirit correlations.
The Five Agents are a product of the deeper Yin-Yang dynamics which originated as a relationship between Yang light, breath, movement, male heaven and Yin darkness, bodily stillness, female earth in the midst of which emerged the Human jen realm of mediation and synthesis. This tripart division of Heaven, Humanity, and Earth each have their correspondent rulers, spirits, and powers. The interactive dynamics of Yin-Yang integration emerges from the Primordial Breath yuanqi or taiji , the creative energy of Being, which is itself is born of wuqi Highest Non-Energy.
These correlations, which are many and highly diverse within various Daoist systems, were further correlated with the eight trigrams and the sixty four hexagrams of the Yijing , accompanied by multiple Daoist commentaries, associated with many diverse deities, and strong emphasis on astral influences of the Big Dipper constellation Thunder Magic. All of these associations were tied to ritual and magical practices carried out by trained Daoist masters who were experts in the esoteric lore and visualization techniques of Daoist alchemy and ceremonial invocation.
The Hermetic texts were primary sources for western esoteric theories of the prisca theologia and the philosophia perennis and were clearly an early, comparative resource for the esoteric reading of translated Daoist texts. Magical practices, with invocations, sacred circles, geomantic inscriptions, carried out with magical implements like the staff or sword, with incense, bells, and chanting are also common aspects of both Daoist and Western esoteric techniques.
Crowley mixed a magical brew of east-west esoteric symbolism, oracular divination and spirit invocation, reminiscent of Daoist religious techniques, without any exposure to genuine Daoist religion. The 64 hexagrams were memorized as a Magic Square by members of the GBG and drawn on a white cloth for the oracular casting. In developing his magical use of the Yijing , Culling demonstrates familiar with Daoist terminology and the symbolism of the bagua prognostic chart of the eight primary trigrams.
From this table of correspondences, Culling then develops a system of interpretations of the position of each of the bagua in 64 combinations and gives the magical application of the hexagrams as related to a magical circle very similar to actual Daoist ritual practices related to the hour, day, season and so on. Subsequently, this oracular technique was taught by Culling to the GBG members. While the writings of C. Abd al-Rahman initiated Agueli and confered upon him the title of moqaddem , one who has the authority to initiate others into the order. Agueli was possibly the first European traditionalist sanctioned to give esoteric Sufi initiations.
In the same year, , Agueli also wrote an article for the journal La Gnose on the universal and esoteric similarities between Daoism and Islam. While Evola, as a "philosopher-visionary", sage, esotericist, painter and mountaineer applied the traditionalist and perennialist ideology to political matters, he also had a strong interest in Daoism.
Evola borrowed from Daoist, Buddhist and Tantric texts to formulate his magical theories of correspondence. Such an individual has the magical traits of invulnerability, spiritual charisma, and a transcendent detachment that reflects his royal ontological status as wang or king. Immortality consists, then, in sustaining consciousness while undergoing the crisis of radical changes of state at death through training in esoteric techniques similar to initiatic traditions of the west.
Further, these immortal forms reflect an esoteric hierarchy of higher and lower types manifesting the degree and intelligence of the individuals thus transformed. Another less dogmatic traditionalist and esoteric writer, Titus Burckhardt, was also influenced by Daoism, particularly by Daoist aesthetic theories as seen in Chinese painting. Burckhardt, a close intellectual compatriot and friend of Frithjof Schuon, espoused a universalist Sufi wisdom sophia perennis and wrote on alchemy and gnosis. Chinese Daoist Teachers and Western Esotericism.
By the late s and early s, Daoism in the west had entered a new phase. Scholarship was producing new translated texts for study, historical interpretations were moving beyond the old paradigms, and Daoist studies were moving increasingly away from a simplistic interpretation of a few classic texts. Instead there was only an increasing complexity and interweaving of diverse sources, as more ethnography was published and more texts from the Daozang have become accessible.
This work and its useful Chinese-English alchemical glossary has become highly referenced by contemporary esotericists and by many Chinese Daoists in America. In the s, authors like J. Cooper , began to write popular but short overviews of Daoism, published like Charles Luk by Western esoteric presses, which covered the subject in a way that demonstrated familiarity with more diverse aspects of the esoteric tradition.
He draws parallels between Daoism and Sufism, western mystics and esoteric writers, and tells many a remarkable and entertaining tale embedding Daoism in its proper Chinese cultural milieu. Following Luk, Blofeld also discusses Daoist yoga or meditation and Daoist sexual techniques, a theme which has attracted some contemporary esotericists. This work is one of the first, very readable, overviews of Daoist religion. Alan Watts, an English emigrant to America, had an early interested in Buddhism and its Zen variations, and toward the end of his controversial and somewhat eccentric life, wrote a book exclusively on Daoism.
Watts was also involved in the human-potential movement, centered in the California Esalen Institute where he met and gave seminars with Al Huang, a popular Chinese Tai Ji teacher, calligrapher, dancer, and organizer of his own Daoist institute, the Living Tao Foundation. Using Daoist concepts such as yin-yang , wuxing , and Yijing bagua symbolism, his work represents a mediating East-West cultural synthesis that bridges the normative gap between academic scholars and popular writers and Chinese Daoist teachers.
During the s, in China, a popular wave of interest in Tai Ji reanimated cultural inquiry into Daoism and Chinese Daoist teachers began to immigrate to America and Europe. Wong, who grew up as a Daoist in China, has translated many Daoist texts and contributed to a growing interest in Daoist religious practices. Yang mixes science, martial arts, and Daoist internal alchemy with vocabulary drawn from English esotericism and European alchemcial thought.
His eclecticism typifies a willingness to synthesize and accommodate his American students common to many Chinese Daoist teachers. In , Michael Saso, a Western scholar fluent in Pinyin and classical Chinese as well as in Japanese, published his excellent Taoist Master Chuang about the life and esoteric practices of a Zheng-Yi Daoist master then living in Taiwan. Saso lived with Master Chuang in Taiwan and studied with him over a period of years.
These ideas in turn have initiated dialogues that have resulted in publications by Chinese teachers and by their students that meld Western esotericism and Chinese esotericism into a variety of systemic comparisons and a rich vocabulary of teachings and practices. The mediating language of this comparison, in America, Canada, Britain, and Australia, has been English in translations, ethnography and in Daoist writings. Subsequently, it is the English vocabulary of esotericism that is most commonly used and assumed by these writers.
He is a 74th generation Daoist master who dates his school back to the Han Dynasty. Master Ni arrived in America from Taiwan in and has since written many books over 30 related to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine and Daoist esotericism. Much of the vocabulary of the school reflects the above esoteric terminology. Perhaps the most prominent influence of the contemporary fusion of Daoism and Western esoteric thinking has been through the teaching of Mantak Chia.
Author of ten books, he is particularly well known for his techniques of self-healing, male and female sexual yoga practices, and for founding the Taoist Esoteric Yoga Center and Foundation in New York City in During his years in New York City, he attracted many students and several of them had a background in Western esotericism, particularly Eric Yudelove in Kabbalah and Dennis Lewis, who was a student of the Gurdjieff breathing techniques. Yudelove references John Blofeld as highly influential on his thinking and talks of his interests in Kabbalah, the Yijing , and Western alchemy during his earlier years.
Yudelove tracks the parallel developments of Daoism from its shamanic roots and Kabbalah, linking them through magical practices and specific theories of the body. He then compares this with Kabbalah practices from Franz Bardon, the well-known Austrian occultist writer d. He also links the color system found in Bardon to a Daoist five-element color system, with their comparative vocables, sacred names, and internal visualizations.
Just as esoteric orders of the West have graded stages of mastery Rosicrucian and Golden Dawn , so too, the Daoist training of adepts--both follow pathwork training and proceed in stages from higher to lower ranks using the various visualization and meditation techniques he outlines in comparative fashion. The final sections of the book gives meditative exercises for both Daoism and Kabbalah.
Overall, his book is an initial exploration of comparative esotericism, East-West synthesis, and a portent of such comparative systems yet to come. Gurdjieff had, at least in part, learned his breathing and dance exercises during his travels and studies among the Sufi dervishes of central Asia. Lewis attributes John Pentland d. Lewis goes on to discuss inner alchemy, the Daoist meridian system, whole body breathing, the expansive and smiling breath, and various systems for the circulation of ji-breath in the body.
Conclusion: The Dao in Esotericism. Contemporary interest in Daoism abounds in popular culture, promoted primarily through martial arts centers and teachers, but also through the increasing abundance of newly published materials, increasing interest in Chinese medicine, and an ever-expanding scholarship in Daoism. Daoism provides a genuine integrative perspective on relationships with the natural environment and on values of cooperation and balance rather than on issues of control and the exploitative use of resources.
There is a convergence of themes in Daoism and in deep ecology that may well be assimilated into a more global esotericism that seeks to develop a cosmology of nature, drawing on Western esoteric resources, for example, such as German Naturphilosophie or New England transcendentalism. Deconstructive writers—who seek to undermine dualism and binary opposition—have seen in Daoism a theory of non-exclusive mutuality between pairs that undermines all oppositional metaphysics.
In summary, there are three notable stages of Daoist impact on Western esotericism. In the first and earliest stage, Daoism was seen as an exotic, strange, alien cultural alternative that was perceived only through a very limited textual horizon, primarily through questionable translations of the Yijing , Daodejing and Zhuangzi , studied in a completely decontextualized atmosphere of Western speculation, theory building, and deculturalized appropriation.
These esotericists noted various structural similarities between Daoist and traditional pre-scientific, Western cosmology. Further similarity was noted between Chinese and Western practices or theories of alchemy, ritual magic, and divination techniques. Daoism in this context referred to the textual classics and was interpreted ideologically in terms of a universalist approach to mysticism and a constructivist, orientalist paradigm.
However, some scholars, like Toshihiko Izutsu, were more carefully textual in their comparative analysis. The third stage was initiated by an increasing dissemination of Daoist teachings through the popular writings of Westerners like Thomas Merton, John Blofeld, and Alan Watts as well as through emerging Chinese translations from writers like Charles Luk.
Chinese teachers, like Master Hua Jing Ni, have continued to write and publish prolifically and many have started Daoist organizations in the West in the form of training programs, schools, universities, and institutions for advanced training in Daoist medical and martial arts. In turn this is complimented by a growing American interests in martial arts, internal alchemy, and Daoist techniques of healing and self-development.
Students of these Chinese teachers have written works that explicitly tie Daoism to Western esoteric traditions, in areas such as esoteric cosmology, Kabbalah, magic, occultism, and the teachings of specific Western masters, such as Gurdjieff. At this stage, the comparative synthesis is far from fully developed but shows a deepening integration by those who are practioners of both traditions. The esoteric alchemical texts of physical transformation are far more influential in this period than the early classic philosophical texts because the latter texts are tied to spiritual practices inseparable from a concern with alternate perceptions at the somatic, sensate level.
Daoism in the context of esotericism offers an entrance into energy practices, meditation, visualization, and martial arts that is far more grounded in body work and self-development than earlier Western interests.